Thursday, May 19, 2016

Smart Response: Zika Control technology begins field testing

Have you noticed an outbreak of mosquitoes near you?
With the rainy season in the tropics, the announcement of the explosive spread of Zika in the Americas and the alert to Europe on potential spread by the World Health Organisation, testing has begun on a new mobile technology aimed at putting power in the hands of anyone who has a smart phone to become an active participant in the international mosquito eradication effort. 
This, along with establishment of a quick response network of individuals, communities, experts and officials involved are part of a concerted effort at mobilising and harnessing efforts in the fight against the deadly Zika virus, Chik-V, Yellow Fever, Dengue, Malaria and other mosquito-bourne diseases. It you want to get involved please inbox me.
World Health Organisation
/Pan American Health Organisation
Poster on Zika
The technology makes everyone a key player in eradication of the deadly threat of Zika and other viruses from mosquitoes and can prove to be vital in the global monitoring and surveillance efforts of not
just the spread of Zika but also on preventative actions by individuals, public health officials, scientists, governmental and intergovernmental agencies, as well as private sector and businesses  working towards eradication of the disease.
It can also facilitate planning and give organisations like the World Health Organisation/Pan American Health Organisation and their aligned regional and national agencies and agents, universities, scientists, epidemiologists and researchers a clear picture of potential danger and help in the mobilisation efforts to address with effective preventative action including eradication programmes of spraying, habitat destruction  that includes local level communities, groups, and individuals in the public, private, NGO and academic sectors.
The technology allows for multimedia information gathering, generation, verification, validation and management that capture data, as well as process, map, track and evaluate existence of risk conditions that will inform and mobilise preventative and proactive responses.
Among its potential spin-off benefit is its use of instant surveillance technologies that will help pinpoint and localise actual threat so limited resources can be focussed and effectively utilised.
It promises to add value and efficiency to the work of epidemiologists, pesticide and insect vector control, emergency response personnel, planners, researchers, media and other surveillance or response mobilising agents while at the same time heightening consciousness and giving individuals and communities key and active roles in the eradication and preventative efforts.  
The new knowledge and information-based technology and strategy in keeping with the WHO/PAHO Zika Strategic Response Framework which has prioritised research, surveillance, risk communications and implementation of vector control strategies for prevention and control of the spread of Zika and other mosquito-bourne diseases.
It comes on the heels of the declaration by the World Health Organisation that the Zika virus, spread by the Aedes Egypti Mosquito is a public health emergency of international concern and concerns sounded by the Pan American Health Organisation about the pace of regional response to the epidemic.
Its applications and outputs can directly inform and impact local to international level mobilisation of efforts by communities as well as use of data generated by technicians, health workers, epidemiologists and scientists who are being asked to get involved in this testing phase.
Its ease of use and accessibility through a mobile App, makes it relevant to every individual of any age or level of expertise as well as those who need key information to prepare actions and responses.
This initiative, part of an exercise in corporate social responsibility is being driven by a network of private, public, academic and NGO group of concerned citizens in partnership with first world technologies of the Americas.
Testing involves tailoring both inputs and outputs of information to be responsive to the needs of various user categories, from insect vector response agents to health officials to individuals and households who find themselves potentially at risk from mosquito breeding grounds.
If you are an official, corporate entity, or individual in any region in area of research, monitoring, or mobilising action for Zika control as an international, national or local level agent and interested in utilising, partnering, sponsoring, accessing information or getting involved in this initiative please inbox me for details.
Dr Kris Rampersad is an independent sustainable development multistakeholder, multimedia educator and outreach facilitator

For Your Information
World Health Organisation Fact Sheet: Zika Virus
(from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/zika/en/)
·         Zika virus disease is caused by a virus transmitted primarily by Aedesmosquitoes.
·         People with Zika virus disease can have symptoms that can include mild fever, skin rash, conjunctivitis, muscle and joint pain, malaise or headache. These symptoms normally last for 2-7 days.
·         There is no specific treatment or vaccine currently available.
·         The best form of prevention is protection against mosquito bites.
·         The virus is known to circulate in Africa, the Americas, Asia and the Pacific.

Introduction
Zika virus is an emerging mosquito-borne virus that was first identified in Uganda in 1947 in rhesus monkeys through a monitoring network of sylvatic yellow fever. It was subsequently identified in humans in 1952 in Uganda and the United Republic of Tanzania. Outbreaks of Zika virus disease have been recorded in Africa, the Americas, Asia and the Pacific.
·         Genre: Flavivirus
·         Vector: Aedes mosquitoes (which usually bite during the day with peaks during early and late afternoon/evening hours)
·         Reservoir: Unknown

Signs and Symptoms
The incubation period (the time from exposure to symptoms) of Zika virus disease is not clear, but is likely to be a few days. The symptoms are similar to other arbovirus infections such as dengue, and include fever, skin rashes, conjunctivitis, muscle and joint pain, malaise, and headache. These symptoms are usually mild and last for 2-7 days.

Potential complications of Zika virus disease
During large outbreaks in French Polynesia and Brazil in 2013 and 2015 respectively, national health authorities reported potential neurological and auto-immune complications of Zika virus disease. Recently in Brazil, local health authorities have observed an increase in Guillain-Barré syndrome which coincided with Zika virus infections in the general public, as well as an increase in babies born with microcephaly in northeast Brazil. Substantial new research has strengthened the association between Zika infection and the occurrence of fetal malformations and neurological disorders. However, more investigation is needed to better understand the relationship. Other potential causes are also being investigated.

Transmission
Zika virus is transmitted to people through the bite of an infected mosquito from theAedes genus, mainly Aedes aegypti in tropical regions. This is the same mosquito that transmits dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever. However, sexual transmission of Zika virus has is also possible. Other modes of transmission such as blood transfusion and perinatal transmission are currently being investigated.
Zika virus disease outbreaks were reported for the first time from the Pacific in 2007 and 2013 (Yap and French Polynesia, respectively), and in 2015 from the Americas (Brazil and Colombia) and Africa (Cabo Verde). In total, 64 countries and territories have reported transmission of Zika virus since 1 January 2007.

Diagnosis
Infection with Zika virus may be suspected based on symptoms and recent history of travel (e.g. residence or travel to an area where Zika virus is known to be present). Zika virus diagnosis can only be confirmed by laboratory testing for the presence of Zika virus RNA in the blood or other body fluids, such as urine or saliva.

Prevention
Vector control
Mosquitoes and their breeding sites pose a significant risk factor for Zika virus infection. Prevention and control relies on reducing mosquitoes through source reduction (removal and modification of breeding sites) and reducing contact between mosquitoes and people.
This can be done by using insect repellent regularly; wearing clothes (preferably light-coloured) that cover as much of the body as possible; installing physical barriers such as window screens in buildings, closed doors and windows; and if needed, additional personal protection, such as sleeping under mosquito nets during the day. It is extremely important to empty, clean or cover containers regularly that can store water, such as buckets, drums, pots etc. Other mosquito breeding sites should be cleaned or removed including flower pots, used tyres and roof gutters. Communities must support the efforts of the local government to reduce the density of mosquitoes in their locality. Efforts must be made to eliminate mosquito breeding sites such as still water soon after rains and its accumulation in discarded containers and waste materials in and around houses.
Repellents should contain DEET (N, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide), IR3535 (3-[N-acetyl-N-butyl]-aminopropionic acid ethyl ester) or icaridin (1-piperidinecarboxylic acid, 2-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-methylpropylester). Product label instructions should be strictly followed. Special attention and help should be given to those who may not be able to protect themselves adequately, such as young children, the sick or elderly.
During outbreaks, health authorities may advise that spraying of insecticides be carried out. Insecticides recommended by the WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme may also be used as larvicides to treat relatively large water containers.
Travellers should take the basic precautions described above to protect themselves from mosquito bites.

Sexual transmission
Sexual transmission of Zika virus is possible. All people who have been infected with Zika virus and their sexual partners should practice safer sex, by using condoms correctly and consistently.
Pregnant women’s sex partners living in or returning from areas where local transmission of Zika virus occurs should practice safer sex, wearing condoms, or abstaining throughout the pregnancy.
People living in areas where local transmission of Zika virus occurs should practice safer sex or abstain from sexual activity.
In addition, people returning from areas where local transmission of Zika virus occurs should adopt safer sexual practices or consider abstinence for at least 4 weeks after their return to reduce the risk of onward transmission.

Treatment
Zika virus disease is usually relatively mild and requires no specific treatment. People sick with Zika virus should get plenty of rest, drink enough fluids, and treat pain and fever with common medicines. If symptoms worsen, they should seek medical care and advice. There is currently no vaccine available.

WHO response
WHO is supporting countries to control Zika virus disease by taking actions outlined in the “Zika Strategic Response Framework":
·         Define and prioritize research into Zika virus disease by convening experts and partners.
·         Enhance surveillance of Zika virus and potential complications.
·         Strengthen capacity in risk communication to help countries meet their commitments under the International Health Regulations.
·         Provide training on clinical management, diagnosis and vector control including through a number of WHO Collaborating Centres.
·         Strengthen the capacity of laboratories to detect the virus.
·         Support health authorities to implement vector control strategies aimed at reducing Aedes mosquito populations such as providing larvicide to treat still water sites that cannot be treated in other ways, such as cleaning, emptying, and covering them.
·         Prepare recommendations for clinical care and follow-up of people with Zika virus, in collaboration with experts and other health agencies.